Eternal Systems (EtSy) - Ultra Large-Scaled(ULS-) Systems:
Eternal Systems run for ever - e.g. for repair, they cannot simply be switched on or off - and they surround us and our life every day.
The Notion of EtSy(1) - also called Ultra-Large-Scaled Systems - in 2006 became invented by the DoD-study on ULS-Systems undertaken by the "Software Engineering Institute (SEI)" of the Carnegie Mellon University" [Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890].
SEI defines an ULS-System as a "system of systems", i.e. a "Socio-Technical Ecosystem (STE-System)" that requires "breakthrough research ... in design and evolution, orchestration and control, monitoring and assessment".
A better notion is the concept of 'Critical Infrastructures', that has been invented by [BMBF - German Ministry for Education and Research] and is called 'CRITIS', which comprises actually 8 combinations of physical systems with I&C Technologies, such as:
- Nutrition Services Infrastructure;
- electrical Energy Distribution Infrastructure, e.g. Smart Grid, Smart Metering Systems;
- Information & Telecommunication Infrastructure, e.g. 3GPP, WiFi, ...
- Health Care Services Infrastructure;
- Transportation and Traffic Control Infrastructure;
- Media, Social Communication & Culture Infrastructure;
- Freshwater Services Infrastructure;
- Finance & Insurance Services Infrastructure;
 The (Eternal) System ist - according to the Common Criteria – the Target of Evaluation (ToE), but is outside the control components of the Security Perimeter – since the System has open interfaces to everybody!